We have been witnessing, since
1990, a long and agonizing crisis in Yugoslavia. It has brought the deaths
of tens of thousands, driven perhaps two million people from their homes
and caused turmoil in the Balkan region. And in the West it is generally
believed that this crisis, including the civil wars in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina,
was the result of internal Yugoslav conflicts, and specifically of conflicts
between Croats, Serbs and Bosnian Muslims. This is far from the essence
of the matter.
The main problem in Yugoslavia
, from the first, was foreign intervention in the country's internal affairs.
Two Western powers, the United States and Germany, deliberately contrived
to destabilize and then dismantle the country. The process was in full
swing in the 1980s and accelerated as the present decade began. These powers
carefully planned, prepared and assisted the secessions which broke Yugoslavia
apart. And they did almost everything in their power to expand and prolong
the civil wars which began in Croatia and then continued in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
They were involved behind the scenes at every stage of the crisis.
Foreign intervention was designed
to create precisely the conflicts which the Western powers decried. For
they also conveniently served as an excuse for overt intervention once
civil wars were under way.
Such ideas are, of course,
anathema in Western countries. That is only because the public in the West
has been systematically misinformed by war propaganda. It accepted almost
from the beginning the version of events promulgated by governments and
disseminated through the mass media. It is nonetheless true that Germany
and the US were the principal agents in dismantling Yugoslavia and sowing
This is an ugly fact in the
new age of realpolitik and geo-political struggles which has succeeded
the Cold War order. Intelligence sources have begun recently to allude
to this reality in a surprisingly open manner. In the summer of 1995, for
instance, INTELLIGENCE DIGEST, a respected newsletter published in Great
Britain, reported that,
|"The original US-German design for the former Yugoslavia
[included] an independent Muslim-Croat dominated Bosnia- Herzegovina in
alliance with an independent Croatian and alongside a greatly weakened
Every senior official in most
Western governments knows this description to be absolutely accurate. And
this means, of course, that the standard descriptions of "Serbian
aggression" as the root cause of the problem, the descriptions of
Croatia as a "new democracy", etc. are not just untrue but actually
designed to deceive.
But why? Why should the media
seek to deceive the Western public? It was not simply that blatant and
large-scale intervention in Yugoslav affairs had to be hidden from public
view. It was also that people would ask questions about why Germany and
the US deliberately created havoc in the Balkans. They wanted inevitably
to know the reasons for such actions. And these had to be hidden even more
carefully than the destructive actions of great powers..
At root, the problem was that
the United States had an extremely ambitious plan for the whole of Europe.
It is now stated quite openly that the US considers itself a "European
power". In the 1980s, this assertion could not be made so easily.
That would have caused too much dissension among Western allies. But the
US drive to establish its domination in Europe was nonetheless a fact.
And the United States was already planning what is now openly talked about.
Quite recently, Richard Holbrooke,
the Assistant Secretary of State for European affairs, made the official
position clear. In a recent article in the influential journal FOREIGN
AFFAIRS, he not only described the United States as a "European power"
but also outlined his government's ambitious plans for the whole of Europe.
Referring to the system of collective security, including NATO, which the
US and its allies created after the second world war, Mr. Holbrooke said,
|"This time, the United
States must lead in the creation
of a security architecture that includes and thereby stabilizes all of
Europe -- the West, the former Soviet satellites of Central Europe and,
most critically. Russia and the former republics of the Soviet Union."
In short, it is now official
policy to move towards the integration of all of Europe under a Western
political and economic system, and to do so through the exercise of "American
leadership". This is simply a polite, and misleading, way of talking
about the incorporation of the former Socialist countries into a vast new
It should not be surprising
that the rest of Mr. Holbrooke's article is about the necessity of expanding
NATO, especially into Central Europe, in order to ensure the "stability"
of the whole of Europe. Mr. Holbrooke states that the "expansion of
NATO is an essential consequence of the raising of the Iron Curtain."
Thus, behind the repeated
interventions in the Yugoslav crisis, there lay long-term strategic plans
for the whole of Europe.
As part of this evolving scheme,
Germany and the US originally determined to forge a new Balkan order, one
based on the market organization of economies and parliamentary democracy.
They wanted to put a definitive end to Socialism in the Balkans. (11)
Ostensibly, they wanted to "foster democracy" by encouraging
assertions of independence, as in Croatia. In reality, this was merely
a ploy for breaking up the Balkans into small and vulnerable countries.
Under the guise of "fostering democracy", the way was being opened
to the recolonization of the Balkans.
By 1990, most of the countries
of Eastern Europe had yielded to Western pressures to establish what were
misleadingly called "reforms". Some had accepted all the Western
conditions for aid and trade. Some, notably Bulgaria and Rumania, had only
partically accepted them.
In Yugoslavia, however, there
was resistance. The 1990 elections in Serbia and Monetenegro kept a socialist
or social-democratic party in power. The Federal government thus remained
in the hands of politicians who, although they yielded to pressures for
"reforms" from time to time, were nevertheless opposed to the
recolonization of the Balkans. And many of them were opposed to the fragmentation
of Yugoslavia. Since the third Yugoslavia, formed in the spring of 1992,
had an industrial base and a large army, that country had to be destroyed.
From the German point of view,
this was nothing more than the continuation of a policy pursued by the
Kaiser and then by the Nazis.
Once, Yugoslavia was dismantled
and thrown into chaos, it was possible to begin reorganizing this central
part of the Balkans. Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina were to be
brought into a German sphere of interest. Germany acquired access to the
sea on the Adriatic, and potentially, in the event that the Serbs could
be overwhelmed, to the new Rhine-Danube canal, a route which can now carry
3,000 ton ships from the North Sea into the Black Sea. The southern reaches
of Yugoslavia were to fall into an American sphere of interest. Macedonia,
which commands the only east-west and north-south passages across the Balkan
Mountains, was to be the centerpiece of an American region.
But the American sphere would
also include Albania and, if those regions could be stripped away from
Serbia, the Sanjak and Kosovo. Some American planners have even talked
of the eventual emergence of a Greater Albania, under US and Turkish tutelage,
which would comprise a chain of small Muslim States, possibly including
Bosnia- Herzegovina, with access to the Adriatic.
Not surprisingly, Germany
and the US, although they worked in concert to bring about the dismantlement
of Yugoslavia, are now struggling for control of various parts of that
country, notably Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. In fact, there is considerable
jockeying for influence and commercial advantage throughout the Balkans.
(12) Most of this competition is between Germany and
the US, the partners who tore Yugoslavia apart. But important companies
and banks from other European countries are also participating. The situation
is similar to that which was created in Czechoslovakia by the Munich Agreement
in 1938. Agreement was reached on a division of the spoils in order to
avoid clashes which would lead immediately to war.