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This official UN report -- Id #: S/1994/674/Add.2 (Vol. I) -- was issued in December 1994. It was assembled "under the direction of" M. Cherif Bassiouni, himself devout Muslim. It is heavily anti-Serb biased. Just look at the phrases used for the Serbs. The Serbs are "rebels" because they did not want to accept new Nazi Croatia or Islam Fundamentalist goverment of Bosnia. This way the Serbs who are loyal to multi-ethnic Yugoslavia are "rebels" and secessionist Croats and Muslims are "governments." Truly Orwellian!

Having that in mind this report, while to large extent downplaying the extent of Croat-Nazi and Islam fundamentalist "paramilitary," is a good source of some basic facts.


UN Report: "Special forces"

United Nations - Security Council

S/1994/674/Add.2 (Vol. I)
28 December 1994


Final report of the United Nations Commission of Experts
established pursuant to
security council resolution 780 (1992)

Annex III.A
Special forces

Under the Direction of:
M. Cherif Bassiouni
Chairman and Rapporteur on the Gathering
and Analysis of the Facts, Commission of Experts
Established Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780 (1992)

Principal Legal Anaylst:
Mark W. Bennett, IHRLI Staff Attorney

Contributors:
Georgann M. Grabiec, IHRLI Staff Attorney
Diane Silverman, IHRLI Volunteer Analyst
John Stompor, IHRLI Staff Analyst
John Tomasic, IHRLI Staff Analyst
Carson A. Wetzel, IHRLI Staff Attorney
Stacey White, IHRLI Staff Analyst


Annex III.A
Special forces
(EXCERPTS)



  Our NOTE:   The key to the terms used in this UN report


"BiH" = abbreviation for "Bosna i Hercegovina" (Bosnia and Herzegovina) a "Socialist Federative Republic" formed out of Yugoslavia by Tito's Communists. The West decided to pry this territory out of Yugoslavia, and demanded that Communist design of the borders be respected.



"Bosnian Serb rebels" = The Serbs born in Bosnia (for many, many generations) who wanted to stay with multi-ethnic Yugoslavia. The Serbs are indigenous to Bosnia since they settled there in 7th century! They were the largest ethnic group there till mid-1980's when they were surpassed in numbers by demographic explosion among Bosnian Muslims.



"The government of BiH" = Islam fundamentalists round Alija Izetbegovic who pushed for secession of Bosnia-Herzegovina and who were recognized by the West as "government". Many Bosnian Muslims joined Bosnian Serbs and fought, tooth and nail, against this imposed government.



The BiH paramilitary units "Green Berets" = Pretend paramilitary - actually elite, shock troops of Islam fundamentalist Alija Izetbegovic. Green is color of Islam.



"HOS" = abbreviation for "Hrvatske Oruzane Snage" (Croatian Defence Forces). Openly Nazi Croat forces following tradition of infamous WWII Croat Nazis known as Ustashas.



"Serbian rebels in Croatia" = The Serbs born in Krajina. Krajina (known in Western literature as "Military Frontier" area was overwhelmingly populated by the Serbs since 1578, when the Serbs were invited(!) to settle there. Communist dictator Tito, himself a Croat, added this historically Serb region to his "Socialist Federative Republic of Croatia."



"JNA" = abbreviation for "Jugoslovenska Narodna Armija" (Yugoslav People's Army). Remnants of Yugoslav Federal Army now betrayed by Croat and Muslim secessionists. UN, under US pressure ordered that this once multi-ethnic army leaves Bosnia. They wanted to be sure that there is no force that will hold Bosnia within multi-ethnic Yugoslavia. Bosnia was thrown to Alija Izetbegovic's wolves and his temporary Croat Nazi allies.




II B. Forces operating in support of BiH - the Green Berets and Mujahedin

1. The Green Berets

    (a) Scope of military operations

           Reports received by the Commission on the activities of BiH paramilitary units were essentially supplied by opposing warring factions. Their designations may not necessarily reflect those of the BiH paramilitary units. Thus, there is not a single unit called the Green Berets or the MOS, but several units which may have different names, but are identified as Green Berets or MOS. For example, the 7th Muslimanska Brigada is often referred to as MOS. It should also be noted that the Patriotic League was the political organization which organized cells of resistance fighters, many of whom had served in the JNA or seen action in Croatia in 1991. References hereinafter to the Green Berets does not, therefore, specifically identify the real BiH name of the unit, if any.

           Most paramilitary organizations working in support of the government of BiH are referred to by others as «Green Berets» or «MOS». It is important to note that several different paramilitary units wore green berets. Therefore, there was no one unit called the «Green Berets». However, the reports of the violations committed by units wearing green berets are combined here under one section. The units wearing green berets were reportedly active in at least 17 counties throughout BiH. *24 They have often acted with the Muslim Territorial Defence (MTD), and at times with the Croatian Defence Forces (HOS), the Croatian Defence Council (HVO), other Muslim paramilitary groups, and local Bosnians. *25 They were reported to be conducting operations against the JNA, Serbian military and paramilitary groups the Croatian Liberation Union, and in some instances the HVO. *26 The total number of Green Berets troops is unknown. *27

           The Green Berets appear to be well-armed, *28 yet there is no clear information indicating from where or whom they received their weapons. It has been reported that Turkey supplied the Green Berets. The Turkish Prime Minister, Suleyman Demirel, denied this during a meeting with then Prime Minister of FRY, Milan Panic. *29

           Most of the reported Green Beret activity occurred between April 1992 and June 1993, with the highest level of reported activity occurring between May and September of 1992. These activites were directed by the Patriotic League.

    (b) Ties with the Government and regular military of BiH

           The well-armed Green Berets often acted alongside regular army battalions and often conducted large-scale operations throughout the territory of BiH. This was in furtherance of the government's strategic goals, which implies the government was exerting some command and control over this group.

           In the 21 October 1992 attack on Vitez, the Green Berets reportedly acted under the command of MTD and their commander Rasim Delic. It was reported that this attack was carried out under the orders of the MTD's Supreme headquarters in Sarajevo. *30

           It has also been reported that the units that wear the green berets are loyal to President Alija Izetbegovic. Since 1993, the Green Berets are reported to be under the command and control of the BiH army. However, as stated before, several different units wore green berets. Therefore, there is not a single unit per se called the «Green Berets» under the control of the BiH army. Rather, there could be several different paramilitary groups wearing green berets under its control.

    (c) Allegations of violations

           Several reports allege that the Green Berets have committed grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and other violations of international humanitarian law. The Green Berets have been implicated in the killing of civilians, rapes, the operation of prison camps (in which civilians were unlawfully detained and sometimes tortured or killed), the destruction of property, and interference with humanitarian aid.

    (d) Summary of reported paramilitary activity *31

           Green Berets were highly active in military operations throughout BiH. Many reports indicate that in the second half of 1992, the Green Berets conducted joint operations with the HVO. In July 1992, both forces launched an offensive on the Dubrovnik-Trebinje front in the south-west section of BiH. *32 In September 1992, the Green Berets and HVO attacked the villages of Dobrinja, Otocac, Rajlovac, Stup, Vogosca, Zuc, and all suburbs of Sarajevo. *33 On 10 November 1992, the Green Berets and HVO forces unsuccessfully attempted to join in Gradacac due to the HVO's inability to break through Serbian lines. *34

           When conducting offensives against towns or villages, the Green Berets, in some instances, are reported to have targeted schools, residences, and local industries. *35

           In addition to military activity against other armed forces, there are also many instances in which Green Berets directed military action against innocent civilians. Five reports describe Green Berets as «picking up» Serb civilians for questioning about the location of Serb camps and weapons. *36 Serbs were usually taken from their homes to camps or other detention facilities. Torture was often used in questioning. *37 Those arrested were often kept in detention for unreasonably long periods of time after questioning.

           There are three reports of women being picked up and taken to camps for the purpose of being raped. *38 One report states that a young Serbian woman was arrested by two Green Berets and taken to Viktor Bubanj in Sarajevo where she was questioned and raped repeatedly. She only indicates that she was raped by «Muslim soldiers» and does not specifically indicate that the Green Berets were involved. *39 Another report suggests that the Green Berets in the village of Dzepa converted a house into a rape camp in the months of July and August 1992. *40 It was also reported that the Green Berets would rape women upon seizing a village. In Bradina, for example, 15 women were reportedly raped in a local school when the village was attacked in July 1992. *41 Many of these incidents and others are described in Annex IX, Rape and Sexual Assault.

           There are several reports of Green Berets killing Serb civilians. In some instances these civilians were killed during the attacks of villages and ambushes of transit caravans. *42 Of particular note is an attack on Bradina on or near 25 May 1992. Eight hundred Green Berets from Hrasnica are reported to have acted with the HVO from Kosovo and Muslim villagers from the surrounding area in a large-scale attack on Bradina. *43 It was reported that between 3,500 and 4,000 people took part in this attack. Fifty-seven Serb refugees who were in Bradina were killed and buried in the churchyard of an Orthodox Church. *44 In other instances, Green Berets entered prison camps to take Serbs to be raped or killed. *45 The most graphic killings are reported to have occurred at the Kosevo Stadium in Sarajevo.

2. Mujahedin

    (a) Introduction

           Mujahedin, or «holy warriors», is a generic term for Muslim volunteers fighting in the former Yugoslavia. Many Mujahedin originate from Muslim countries outside the former Yugoslavia. It was reported that the Mujahedin began arriving in BiH as early as June 1992. *46 Reports on the number of Mujahedin forces operating in BiH vary, but it is unlikely that the Mujahedin forces have made a significant military contribution to the BiH Government's war effort. *47 The Mujahedin forces came from several Muslim states and many of them were veterans of the Afghan war. *48

           The Mujahedin forces were reported to be under the command of the BiH Army. *49 However, they frequently acted with independence and their presence is no longer welcomed[SIC!]. *50 They are alleged to be terrorizing the Muslims they came to protect in an effort to enforce Islamic practices. *51 Their presence, the Serbs and Croats have argued, is evidence that the Bosnian Muslims intend on turning BiH into a fundamentalist Muslim state. *52

    (b) Scope of military activity

           Mujahedin forces were actively involved in military operations in seven counties throughout BiH. *53 The dates of reported activity range from June 1992 through June 1993, with the heaviest activity reported in Travnik, Zenica, and Konjic.

    (c) Ties with the Government and regular military of BiH

           Several reports indicate that the Mujahedin were placed under the command of the BiH Army. *54 The Mujahedin forces were closely associated with the 5th Corps, the 6th and 7th Zenica Brigades, the 7th Travnik Brigade, and the 45th Muslim Brigade which belongs to the 6th Corps in Konjic of the Army of BiH. *55 They also allegedly fought alongside the Muslim Police, the Krajiska Brigade from Travnik, units of Kosovo Muslims, Albanian soldiers, and paramilitary groups such as the «Green Legion» and the «Black Swans». *56

           Reports also indicate that the Mujahedin had the support of President Izetbegovic and his government. *57 This was demonstrated in the Bihac pocket, where the Mujahedin joined BiH forces loyal to Izetbegovic. Together, these forces battled separatist forces who entered into a separate peace treaty with Bosnian Serbs. *58

    (d) Allegations of war crimes

           Reports submitted to the Commission of Experts alleged that the Mujahedin have been responsible for the mutilation and killing of civilians, rape, looting, the destruction of property, and the expulsion of non-Muslim populations. The deputy commander of the BiH Army, Colonel Stjepan Siber, has said, «it was a mistake to let them [the Mujahedin] here . . . They commit most of the atrocities and work against the interests of the Muslim people. They have been killing, looting and stealing.» *59

    (e) Summary of reported paramilitary activity *60

           In Zenica, between 31 August and 2 September 1992, 250 Mujahedin troops allegedly come to BiH from Turkey, Qatar, Bahrain and Iran. These troops worked alongside the Green Legion and HOS paramilitary groups stationed in Zenica. The Mujahedin allegedly also operated a camp at Arnauti. *61 It was reported that a unit of the Mujahedin, called the «Guerilla», participated in the 16 April 1993 attack on Vitez and attempted to exchange 10 HVO hostages for foreign prisoners held in HVO prisons. *62

           The Croatian Ministry of Defence is reported to have provided information about an event occurring in June 1993 -- a joint BiH/Mujahedin unit reportedly attacked Travnik, allegedly forcing 4,000 Croatian civilians and military personnel out of the town. *63 The Mujahedin allegedly fought alongside the 6th Muslim Brigade from Zenica and the Krajiska Brigade from Travnik. Witnesses stated that they saw Mujahedin operating in small patrols ahead of the approaching BiH troops. *64

           According to HVO intelligence, Mujahedin forces arrived in Travnik sometime before June 1993 and came from Algeria, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. The Mujahedin trained at a camp at Mehurici, where they were allegedly financed and equipped by a man named Abdulah, the owner of the «Palma» video store in Travnik. *65 Once in town, the Mujahedin were linked to the Seventh Brigade of the BiH Army, and were reportedly assembled into units of 10 to 15 men, and moved about on regular patrols. *66 The Mujahedin created tension in Travnik in the days prior to the attack on 3 June. One witness stated that the Mujahedin directed their actions towards the HVO personnel in town. They allegedly demonstrated, shouted slogans and fired their rifles in the air. *67

           Mujahedin allegedly participated in the attack on Maljine in Novi Travnik on 8 June 1993, killing 20 to 30 HVO members and transporting Croatian women and children to the training centre at Mehurici. *68

           In Konjic, the Mujahedin were part of a 100 member force stationed at Liscioi and led by Haso Hakalovic. The unit was assembled in February 1993 and included some Kosovo Muslims and members of the Black Swans from the Igman mountain region. *69 Allegedly, Mujahedin troops killed and expelled villagers, and looted and burned homes, when they moved against the Jablanica- Konjic area. *70 The Mujahedin troops and members of the Black Swans reportedly conducted occasional raids without members of BiH forces. *71 Reportedly, the Mujahedin volunteers arrived in Konjic in small groups. It was reported that they were from Afghanistan and that they claimed to be students. They were allegedly armed with Hekleri automatic weapons and former JNA equipment. *72 Some Mujahedin were reportedly former students with no military experience.

           Mujahedin forces were present in Mostar since early June 1993. They were reportedly stationed in the Santica neighbourhood on the Muslim/HVO front, where they manned bunkers, usually in groups of six or seven, armed with 7.62 millimetre semi-automatic weapons, machine-guns, and Zolja anti-tank weapons. They were billeted in a building they shared with the Muslim military police on the east bank of the Neretva River. The Mujahedin forces apparently left Mostar on 15 August. *73

           FRY reported that the Mujahedin began operations near Teslic in July and August of 1992. Troops from Saudi Arabia allegedly killed three Serbian Territorial Defence members and placed the victims' severed heads on poles near the «Tesanj turret». *74 Beheadings of Serbs by Mujahedin forces have also been reported in other areas.

           The Mujahedin were also alleged to be part of the forces that invaded the village of Trusina near Foca on 15 April 1993. According to the report, attackers wore white ribbons on their arms and fought beside Albanian Muslim troops. Twenty-two civilians reportedly died in the attack. *75 The Mujahedin allegedly performed crude circumcisions upon Serbian police forces, who were later treated by an American surgeon at the Kosevo hospital in Sarajevo. *76

C. Paramilitaries operating in support of the Croatian Government

1. The Croatian Defence Forces (HOS)

    (a) Introduction

           Dobroslav Paraga formed the HOS in 1991 as the paramilitary wing of the Croatian Party of Rights (HSP). The HOS fought Serbian rebels in Croatia and Bosnian Serb rebels throughout western BiH until August 1992. Under General Blaz Kraljevic, the HOS established paramilitary headquarters at Ljubuski, BiH, but the HOS reportedly took orders from Zagreb. Local Croats and Muslims, Croatian emigres and foreign mercenaries all fought for the HOS. Muslim fighters reportedly joined the Croatian HOS because its leaders pledged to keep the territory of BiH intact. *77 According to military analyst Dr. Milan Vego, Muslims made up 30 per cent of HOS forces and at least 50 per cent in the Mostar area in March 1992. *78

           The HOS reportedly wore black uniforms bearing the Croatian checkered shield, *79 that were similar to those worn by the Ustase of the Second World War. The HOS also were reported to use the Ustase form of saluting. They carried Kalishnikov rifles, Scorpions, Uzis, shotguns, and daggers. *80 They detained large numbers of Serbian civilians from Capljina and Mostar counties at the Dretelj military facilities south-west of Sarajevo and in detention centres situated along the Dalmatian coast. Villages near Bradina and Donje Selo were reportedly targets of HOS ethnic cleansing operations. According to witness accounts, HOS units often operated alongside Muslim Green Berets, who fought in support of the government of BiH.

           Because of its success in fighting Serb forces throughout the summer of 1992, the HOS gained many new members. However, HOS strength was undermined after General Blaz Kraljevic was killed in early August 1992. In an effort to maintain unity, the HVO and the HOS signed an agreement on 23 August 1992, which officially linked the two forces under the banner of the HVO. *81 By the early months of 1993 when relations between the Croatian and Muslim forces fighting in western BiH broke down, Muslim civilians and former HOS soldiers became a target of the HVO. As a result, camps like Dretelj, which released many of the Serbian inmates imprisoned by the HOS, began filling up with Muslim soldiers and civilians captured in fighting between Muslim forces and the HVO. *82

    (b) Scope of military activity

           The HOS operated in Croatia and in Konjic, Mostar, Sarajevo, Bosanski Brod, Novi Travnik, and Zenica Counties in BiH. The HOS reportedly ran camps where civilians were tortured, raped and killed. Their detention facilities ranged from metal sheds in Capljina to large camps like Dretelj in south-western BiH, where 500 prisoners were reportedly held.

    (c) Ties with the Croatian Government and with the regular army

           Formed as the paramilitary wing of the ultra-right HSP, the HOS reportedly trained soldiers at former JNA facilities in Slovenia *83 and was supplied, in part, by the Republic of Croatia. *84 There are also reports that HOS units served directly under the regular Croatian army. A Croatian military court tried HSP leader, Dobroslav Paraga, in 1993 for attempting to overthrow the Croatian Government. A Reuters report on the trial stated that the «majority of HOS units were proved to be under Croatian Army Command». *85 After 1993, the HOS soldiers were integrated into the HVO.

    (d) Allegations of war crimes

           Witness statements, media accounts, and reports from FRY allege that HOS paramilitary units committed grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and other violations of international humanitarian law in Croatia and in BiH. The HOS reportedly looted, destroyed Serbian property, including 24 Orthodox churches, and killed, raped, and mutilated civilians, including women and children. They also engaged in ethnic cleansing and operated detention facilities where civilians were starved and tortured.

    (e) Summary of reported paramilitary activity *86

           Reports sent to the Commission of Experts allege that the HOS detained civilians, including women and children, in facilities in Croatia and in BiH. These prisoners were often killed or abused by members of the HOS. An officer, whose name is known but not disclosed for confidentiality and prosecutorial reasons, and other HOS members allegedly kept 40 women confined in a metal shed, which was a former munitions warehouse outside of Capljina. *87 An HOS unit and a Muslim paramilitary unit controlled the «Viktor Bubanj» detention facility in Sarajevo, where Serbian civilians were subjected to killing, torture, and rape. *88 An identified HOS member allegedly interrogated prisoners at a secondary school (perhaps at Ahmici). *89 A witness alleged that she was taken from her home in Capljina to a tobacco factory where she was raped by members of the HOS. *90 From April to October 1992, the HOS ran the Dretelj detention facility, which contained civilians from the Mostar and Capljina municipalities. *91 Victims stated that they were subjected to sexual torture, beaten with truncheons and sticks, burned with cigarettes and candles, and forced to drink urine and eat grass. *92 One victim reported that she was held in a room with three other professional women for 10 days during which time women in the room were raped repeatedly. *93

           During the spring of 1992, the HOS and Muslim Green Berets reportedly burned two villages in southern BiH, Donje Selo, and Bradina, and sent the inhabitants to nearby detention facilities. Donje Selo was attacked first. Bradina was attacked on 25 May 1992. The HOS transferred women prisoners to Konjic Sports Hall, where some of the victims were raped. The men were taken to Celebici camp. The HOS returned to Bradina on 13 July burned the town, and imprisoned all those who remained in an elementary school. Many civilians allegedly died in the attacks. *94

           The FRY Mission to the United Nations reported that two Serbian civilians were tortured for a month before being killed at an HOS detention facility at Ljubuski. One of the victims was impaled and burned to death and the other was killed with a knife. *95

           In Croatia, the HOS allegedly operated the Lora camp at Split and detention facilities at Tomislavgrad and Metkovic. All of these facilities reportedly held prisoners from the Capljina municipality of BiH. *96

           Many witnesses alleged that the HOS killed civilians outside of the camps as well, often in the victims' homes or villages. In mid-1992, members of the HOS allegedly killed a man and his daughter outside the B. Lalic school in Novi Travnik. On 6 May 1992, in Majevije, BiH, members of the HOS allegedly stabbed a man over 100 times, severed his head, spilled his brains and intestines onto the ground, and cut off his genitals and placed them in his mouth. *97

           The HOS reportedly looted and stole from civilians throughout the regions where they operated. Statements report forced entries into apartments and theft of valuables including money, jewelry, and documents. In Kakanj, the HOS reportedly confiscated and rented out apartments. *98

           HOS units allegedly destroyed property in BiH and in Croatia. *99 During the summer of 1992, members of the HOS destroyed 24 Orthodox churches and two monasteries. *100

2. Paramilitary forces under the command of Jusuf Prazina, alias «Juka»

    (a) Introduction

           According to The Daily Telegraph, Jusuf Prazina, alias Juka, was a racketeer and underworld figure in Sarajevo before hostilities broke out in April 1992. During the war, Juka and his troops are reported to have killed and raped civilians in Sarajevo and Mostar. He allegedly took hundreds of prisoners, looted houses, stole cars, and handed out Mostar apartments to the HVO. According to these reports, he never stopped racketeering; throughout the siege of Sarajevo, Juka reportedly controlled the black market, which included stolen United Nations humanitarian supplies. *101

           Juka, who was 30 years old in 1992, admitted being sent to jail five times before the war. He survived an armed assault outside the military hospital in Sarajevo in May of 1992, sustaining injuries which caused him to limp. *102

           Juka attained notoriety by using his weapons and small, private army to defend Sarajevo during the Serbian assault. His men were allegedly armed with sawed-off shotguns, Kalishnikovs, Kochs/Hecklers. *103 Estimates of the number of men under Juka's command during his two year involvement in the conflict range from 24 to 3,000. His troops, called the «Wolves», reportedly wore crew-cuts, black jump-suits, sunglasses, basketball shoes, and sometimes masks. *104

           Juka joined forces with the HVO in early 1993. After the formal break between Bosnian Muslims and Croats later that spring, Juka sided with the Croats and fought alongside the HVO in Mostar, where he apparently led ethnic cleansing operations against Muslim civilians. Juka had already been forced off Mount Igman (near Sarajevo) and most of his men jailed in January 1993.

           Juka reportedly flew from Sarajevo to Zagreb with the assistance of UNPROFOR and French Lieutenant General Philippe Morillon. *105 He lived for a time in a villa on the Dalmatian coast, given to him by the Croatian authorities, and later moved to Liege, Belgium, where a small Yugoslav expatriate community resided. He was killed there by one of his body guards by two gunshots to the head on 3 December 1993. *106

    (b) Scope of military activity

           Juka operated first with his own private army in Sarajevo, commanded up to 3,000 men as a BiH Army commander, and later led paramilitary forces in Mostar. In the fall of 1992, Juka reportedly set up a stronghold on Mount Igman from which he attacked soldiers and civilians. He also reportedly ran prison camps including the Viktor Bubanj military facilities and the heliport detention centre outside of Mostar. Many of the prisoners at both camps were reportedly malnourished, physically abused, and killed. Juka was defeated by Zuka in January 1993.

    (c) Ties with the Croatian and BiH Governments and with the regular army

           Due to his early success in defending Sarajevo, the BiH Government granted Juka a position as Head of Special Forces during the summer of 1992. *107 Before his appointment to a regular army position, Juka and his men reportedly received arms through the HSP paramilitary organization, the HOS. *108 In September, he reportedly fell out with the Sarajevo authorities over what he perceived as the failure of commander-in-chief Sefer Halilovic's plans for defeating the attacking Serbian forces. *109 He was asked to resign his position as part of the General Staff after an allegedly threatening confrontation with Alija Izetbegovic at his offices in Sarajevo. *110 His renegade activities involving his private army and his alarming attitude towards the BiH authorities ultimately led them to issue a warrant for his arrest in October 1992. *111 By January 1993, a Sarajevo radio broadcast stated that Juka was being sought for «permanently working to break up the order and hierarchy in the armed forces of the Republic of BiH». *112

           After severing his ties to the BiH Government, Juka reportedly stationed himself and approximately 200 men on Mt. Igman overlooking the city of Sarajevo. On Mount Igman, Juka battled the BiH Army, attacking their headquarters and General Staff. According to The Daily Telegraph, much of the fall and winter witnessed battles between Juka and the BiH Government forces on the mountain. Command on Igman was reportedly split between the regular army and forces loyal to Juka, which included some Muslim soldiers and the HVO. In December 1992, the BiH Government, hoping to break the Serbian siege of the city, reportedly supplied the Mount Igman force with artillery and T- 34, T-55, and Leopard-I tanks. *113

           After Juka joined forces with the HVO in Mostar, Croatian authorities reportedly supplied him with a villa on the Dalmatian coast where he stayed before relocating to Belgium during the fall of 1993. *114

    (d) Allegations of war crimes

           Paramilitary forces operating under Juka reportedly operated in Sarajevo and Mostar counties, BiH. Media accounts, witness statements, and reports submitted to the Commission of Experts allege that Juka and his men ran detention facilities for Serbian civilians near Sarajevo and for Muslims at the heliport near Mostar. On Mount Igman, Juka's paramilitaries allegedly hijacked vehicles and detained civilians. Juka's forces reportedly practised extortion, looting, rape, ethnic cleansing, and killing of civilians.

    (e) Summary of reported paramilitary activity *115

           It was reported that Juka's forces abused their position as the city's defenders to extort money and valuables from residents and raid the city's warehouses and shops. Witnesses stated that Juka's men appropriated apartments and abducted and abused civilians. *116 One witness claimed that three members of Juka's army and a commander entered an apartment and raped a woman on 30 September 1992. According to the report, the woman died as a result of the attack. *117 The Washington Post reported that Juka's army looted the Yugo Sport warehouse and stole 20,000 pairs of shoes. *118

           As head of the BiH Army's paramilitary units, Juka became the warden of a prison camp set up in the Viktor Bubanj army barracks. The detention facility became known as «Viktor Bubanj», but was also called «Juka's Prison». Over 200 prisoners were held there and subjected to torture, hunger, and hard labour. The camp commander allegedly committed many criminal acts, including rape and murder. *119

           On Mount Igman, Juka beat and stole from soldiers and civilians alike regardless of nationality. He reportedly confiscated automobiles and, according to The Daily Telegraph, beat one fleeing civilian's head against the hood of a car. *120

           Juka and his men reportedly conducted ethnic cleansing operations in Mostar after joining forces with the HVO. Juka's forces evicted, imprisoned, physically abused, and killed many civilians. The London Times reported in May 1993, that Juka and his men drove out every Muslim civilian living in Mostar on the west bank of the Neretva river to «deny vantage points to snipers». *121 Homes were looted and men were beaten up and arrested. *122 Witnesses stated that sometime before 15 July 1993, Juka's forces allegedly evicted the wealthy Muslim residents of Mostar from their apartments, which were then looted and turned over to members of the HVO paramilitary formations. According to reports, Juka's forces were masked and heavily armed when they surrounded the apartments. They then blocked exits, fired their weapons in the air, and demanded that all Muslim residents evacuate the building. *123 Witnesses stated that Juka and his men killed as many as 700 people in and around Mostar and that they ran detention facilities for Muslim civilians at the heliport outside the city. *124


NOTES:


*24    These counties are: Bihac, Bijeljina, Brcko, Donji Vakuf, Gorazde, Gradacac, Kljuc, Konjic, Livno, Odzak, Prijedor, Sarajevo, Srebrenica, Tuzla, Visoko, Vogosca, Zenica, and Zvornik.

*25    See Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Report Submitted from Charge d'Affairs to the United Nations Secretary-General, 6 November 1992, IHRLI Doc. No. 48294; Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Report Submitted by Professor Biljana Plavsic to the United Nations Secretary-General and Various State Embassies, 29 September 1992, IHRLI Doc. No. 5459; «Serbs Request Yugoslav Military Intervention as Fighting Worsens», BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 12 November 1992; «Situation in Gorazde in Brief», BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 17 August 1992; «Extent of Croatian Army Activity in Herzegovina Detailed in Serbian Report», BBC, 27 July 1992.

*26    See Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Information on the Aggression of the Republic of Croatia, 27 November 1992, IHRLI Doc. No. 3132; «Security Reports in Brief», BBC, 23 October 1992; «Other Reports in Brief», BBC, Summary of World Broadcasts, 14 September 1992.

*27    One report did indicate that at least 800 Green Berets from Hrasnica, along with the Croatian Defence Council allegedly attacked Bradina. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Report Submitted by Professor Biljana Plavsic to the United Nations Secretary-General and Various State Embassies, 29 September 1992, IHRLI Doc. No. 5459.

*28    One report alleged that the Green Berets were using 82 and 120 mm mortars in an attack on Serbian positions in Sarajevo. «Fierce Battles Rage near Novi Grad, Bratunac; Air Raids Reported on Srebrenica», BBC, Summary of World Broadcasts, 13 January 1993. In a report on an ambush in Zvornik, the Green Berets allegedly used grenade launchers and bombs. «Other Reports in Brief; SRNA Reports Muslims Massacre 10 Civilians near Zvornik», BBC, Summary of World Broadcasts, 14 September 1992.

*29    «FRY Premier Panic in Turkey; Discussed Balkans, Bosnia», BBC, Summary of World Broadcasts, 15 August 1992.

*30    «Muslim and Croatian Fighting in Novi Travnik: New Croatian Offensive on Trebinje», BBC, Summary of World Broadcasts, 23 October 1992.

*31    For a more detailed discussion of the Green Berets activity, see the Geographical Analysis section below.

*32    «Humanitarian Aid Convoy Bound for Gorazde Forced to Return to Sarajevo», BBC, Summary of World Broadcasts, 27 July 1992.

*33    «Fierce Fighting on the Main Bosnia and Herzegovina Fronts as UN Supervises Artillery», BBC, Summary of World Broadcasts, 14 September 1992.

*34    «Serbs Request Yugoslav Military Intervention in Herzegovina as Fighting Worsens», BBC, Summary of World Broadcasts, 12 November 1992.

*35    See «Muslim and Croatian Fighting in Novi Travnik: New Croatian Offensive on Trebinje», BBC, Summary of World Broadcasts, 23 October 1992; «Other Reports in Brief: Charges Brought against Muslim `Terrorists' in Banja Luka», BBC, Summary of World Broadcasts, 3 November 1992.

*36    See an official source, IHRLI Doc. No. 5863 and No. 5867; Serbian Council Information Centre, Rape and Sexual Abuse of Serb Women, Men and Children in Areas Controlled by Croatian and Moslem Armed Formations in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, 1991-1993, 15 January 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 46196; Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Information on the Aggression of Croatia, 27 November 1992, IHRLI Doc. No. 3140-3174; Unidentified Written Statement, IHRLI Doc. No. 18656.

*37    One report describes the arrest of a man in Visoko who was beaten by «policemen» for four hours and then kept on a stretcher for three days without food or water. An official source, IHRLI Doc. No. 5863.

*38    See Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Second Report Submitted Pursuant to UN Security Council Resolution 780 (1992), 2 July 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 28401-29019, at 28463 and 28548; Serbian Council Information Centre, Rape and Sexual Abuse of Serb Women, Men and Children in Areas Controlled by Croatian and Moslem Armed Formations in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, 1991-1992, 15 January 1993.

*39    Serbian Council Information Centre, Rape and Sexual Abuse of Serb Women, Men and Children in Areas Controlled by Croatian and Moslem Armed Formations in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, 1991-1992, 15 January 1993.

*40    Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, «Second Report Submitted Pursuant to UN Security Council Resolution 780 (1992)», 2 July 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 28401-29019, at 28548.

*41    Id.

*42    International Committee of the Red Cross, Memo from Team B3 in Belgrade to ECMM, 18 March 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 19151; Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Information on the Aggression of the Republic of Croatia, 27 November 1992, IHRLI Doc. No. 3140-3147; Information Centre of the Democratic League of Kosova, Muslim Forces Massacre Serbs in Eastern Bosnia-Herzegovina, Victims Identified, 8 October 1992, IHRLI Doc. No. 48032; Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Report Submitted by Professor Biljana Plavsic to the U.N. Secretary-General and Various State Embassies, 29 September 1992, IHRLI Doc. No. 5459; «Information from Command of the Herzegovina Corps in Bileca», Vecernje Novosti, 22 September 1992, IHRLI Doc. No. 48001.

*43    The villagers involved are reported to have come from Pazaric, Osenik, Luka, Tarcin, Japaluci, Budmolici, Gornja Bioca, Duranovici, Trzanj, and Vukovici. See Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Report Submitted by Professor Biljana Plavsic to the U.N. Secretary-General and Various State Embassies, 29 September 1992, IHRLI Doc. No. 5459; Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Information on the Aggression of the Republic of Croatia, 27 November 1992, IHRLI Doc. No. 3140-3147.

*44    See Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Report Submitted by Professor Biljana Plavsic to the U.N. Secretary-General and Various State Embassies, 29 September 1992, IHRLI Doc. No. 5459; Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Information on the Aggression of the Republic of Croatia, 27 November 1992, IHRLI Doc. No. 3140- 3147.

*45    Green Berets entered the camp in the village of Vitkovci to kill Serb prisoners. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Report Submitted by the Charge d' Affairs to the UN Secretary-General, 6 November 1992, IHRLI Doc. No. 48286. They were also present in the Celebici Camp in Konjic which was under the command of the HOS. Id. Reportedly they killed and beat prisoners at Viktor Bubanj in Sarajevo. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Information on the Aggression of the Republic of Croatia, 27 November 1992, IHRLI Doc. No. 3140-3147, at 3147.

*46    Tom Post & Joel Brand, «Help from the Holy Warriors», Newsweek, 5 October 1992, at 52.

*47    Christopher Lockwood, «Muslim Nations Offer Troops», Daily Telegraph, 14 July 1993, at 14. According to Lockwood, Muslim nations depended on Western logistical support to deliver troops to BiH. He concludes that the same logistical troubles which kept the Muslim troops promised in July of 1993 from joining UN forces in the UN declared «safe havens» also limited the number of Muslim volunteers in the BiH armed forces. He states that the number of Mujahedin in BiH never exceeded three or four hundred. See also Mohamed Sid-Ahmad, «Muslim World Between Two Fires», War Report, January 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 63744. However, the Belgrade Daily, Vecernje Novosti, reported that as many as 30,000 Mujahedin were operating in BiH. «Other Reports in Brief: Muslims from Abroad Settling in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Belgrade Daily Claims», BBC, Summary of World Broadcasts, 19 September 1992.

*48    Andrew Hogg, «Arabs Join in Bosnia Battle», Sunday Times, 30 August 1992.

*49    «Some 400 Mujahedin Volunteers are Fighting with Bosnian Muslims», Agence France Presse, 22 September 1992.

*50    Andrew Hogg, «Terror Trail of the Mujahedin», Sunday Times, 27 June, 1993.

*51    The leader of the Mujahedin in BiH, an Arab by the name of Abdul Aziz, has said, «In Bosnia we have two duties, the first is jihad and the second is dawa, which means to teach correct Islam». Id.

*52    Frank Viviano, «Bosnian Croats Praying at Alter of Vengeance: Anti-Muslim Feeling Grows Among Catholics», The San Francisco Chronicle, 17 August 1993, at p. A10; Robert Adams, «Bosnia and Herzegovina: The Price of Betrayal», Inter Press Service, 15 July 1993.

*53    These counties are Bihac, Foca, Konjic, Mostar, Teslic, Travnik, and Zenica.

*54    See «Some 400 Mujahedin Volunteers Fighting with Bosnian Muslims», Agence France Presse, 22 September 1992; Andrew Hogg, «Arabs Join in Bosnia Battle», Sunday Times, 30 August 1992; see also Charles McLoed, ECMM, «Report on Inter-Ethnic Violence in Vitez, Busovaca and Zenica», April 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 20178- 20546, at 20207; Croatian Information Centre, Weekly Bulletin, No. 9, 4 October 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 36434-36438, at 36435; US Department of State, 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 62612-62877, at 62648, 62724, 62730, and 62756.

*55    US Department of State, 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 62612-62877, at 62648; see also Croatian Information Centre, Weekly Bulletin, No. 9, 4 October 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 36434-36438, at 36435; «Continuing Clashes in Northwestern Enclave Reported from Both Sides», BBC, Summary of World Broadcasts, 14 December 1993.

*56    Charles McLoed, ECMM, Report on Inter-Ethnic Violence in Vitez, Busovaca and Zenica, April 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 20178-20546, at 20207; Croatian Information Centre, Weekly Bulletin, No. 9, 4 October 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 36434-36438, at 36435; US Department of State, 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 62612-62877, at 62648, 62724, 62730, and 62756.

*57    Andrew Hogg, «Arabs Join Bosnia Battle», Sunday Times, 30 August 1992.

*58    «Continuing Clashes in Northwestern Enclave Reported form Both Sides», BBC, Summary of World Broadcasts, 14 December 1993.

*59    Andrew Hogg, «Terror Trail of the Mujahedin», Sunday Times, 27 June 1993.

*60    For a more detailed discussion of the activity of the Mujahedin, see the Geographical analysis section below.

*61    Charles McLeod, ECMM, Report on Inter-Ethnic Violence in Vitez, Buscovaca and Zenica, April 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 29043-29131, at 29064; Biljaja Plavsic, Republic of Serbia Presidency, To Serbs All Over the World, 30 September 1992, IHRLI Doc. No. 48072- 48093, at 48081.

*62    Id.; US Department of State, 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 62612-62877, at 62629; see also Charles McLeod, ECMM, Report on Inter-Ethnic Violence in Vitez, Busovaca and Zenica, April 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 29043-29131, at 29072 (attack on Vitez).

*63    US Department of State, 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 62612-62877, at 62650. Media reports however claim that Croats left Travnik voluntarily. The incident was investigated by an organization, which reported that the forceful eviction did not take place.

*64    Id. at IHRLI Doc. No. 62724.

*65    Id. at IHRLI Doc. No. 62616, 62620, and 62715.

*66    Id. at IHRLI Doc. No. 62730.

*67    Id. at IHRLI Doc. No. 62720.

*68    Croatian Information Centre, Weekly Bulletin, No. 1, 9 August 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 32774-32782, at 32780. The incident was investigated by an organization, which reported that it did not take place.

*69    US Department of State, 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 62612-62877, at 62756.

*70    Id. at IHRLI Doc. No. 62614.

*71    Id. at IHRLI Doc. No. 62752 and 62756. The village of Vrci was attacked on 25 May, and the village of Radesine was attacked on 10 June. See also Tadeusz Mazowiecki, Fifth Periodic Report on the Situation of Human Rights in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1994/47, 17 November 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 52399-52435, at 52405 (alleging that the Mujahedin were involved in attacks at Kopjari on 21 October, Doljani on 27 and 28 June, and Maljane on 8 June). UN Special Rapporteur Mazowiecki claims that corpses of Mujahedin victims displayed evidence of protracted cruelty and mutilation.

*72    Id. at 62648 and 62756; Croatian Information Centre, Weekly Bulletin, No. 9, 4 October 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 36434-36438, at 36435.

*73    US Department of State, 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 62612-62877, at 62742 and 62677. For more details on the location of the Neretva living quarters, see Id. at 62739.

*74    Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Second Report Submitted to the Commission of Experts, 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 28401-29019, at 28533.

*75    US Department of State, 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 62612-62877, at 62648; Croatian Information Centre, Weekly Bulletin, No. 9, 4 October 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 36434-36438, at 36435.

*76    Letter dated 7 December 1992 from the Deputy Representative of the US to U.N. Secretary-General, U.N. Doc. S/24918, 8 December 1992, IHRLI Doc. No. 3160-3177, at 3173; Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Second Report Submitted to the Commission of Experts, 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 28401-29019, at 28566.

*77    Milan Vego, «The Croatian Defence Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina», Jane's Intelligence Review, March 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 26349A1-A63.

*78    Id. at IHRLI Doc. No. 26349A8.

*79    Serbian Republic Presidency, To Serbs All Over the World, IHRLI Doc. No. 48122-127, at 48124. But see Ian Katz and Maggie O'Kane, «Real Lives: In for the Kill», The Guardian, 4 February 1994 (describing members of the HOS wearing «black boiler suits»).

*80    Serbian Republic Presidency, To Serbs All Over the World, IHRLI Doc. No. 48122-48127, at 48124.

*81    Milan Vego, «The Croatian Defence Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina», Jane's Intelligence Review, March 1993, IHRLI Doc. No. 26349A1-26349A63, at 26349A9.

*82    Ian Katz and Maggie O'Kane, «Real Lives: In for the Kill», The Guardian, 4 February 1994.

*83    «Tanjug: Slovene Journal Reports Croatian Paramilitaries Trained in Slovenia», BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 13 September 1993 (quoting the Slovene periodical Mladina).

*84    Serbian Republic Presidency, To Serbs All Over the World, IHRLI Doc. No. 48122-127, at 48124.

*85    «Croat Rightist Leader Acquitted of Treason», Reuter Library Report, 5 November 1993, available in LEXIS, News Library, Curnws File.

*86    For a more detailed discussion of HOS paramilitary activity, see the Geographical Analysis section below.

*87    Letter dated September 22, 1992, from the Deputy Permanent Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary General, U.N. Doc. S/24583 (23 September 1992), IHRLI Doc. No. 87-96, at 93.

*88    Letter from the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Serbian Representative to the Commission of Experts Established Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780 (1 December 1992), IHRLI Doc. No. 11521-11643, at 11540.

*89    Charles McLeod, ECMM, Report on Inter-Ethnic Violence in Vitez, Busovaca and Zenica (April 1993), IHRLI Doc. No. 20128-20266, at 20226.

*90    Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Second Report Submitted to the Commission of Experts (1993), IHRLI Doc. No. 28401-29019, at 28682.

*91    Serbian Republic Presidency, To Serbs All Over the World, IHRLI Doc. No. 48122-48127, at 48124 (explaining that the HOS ran Dretelj from early August 1992, until the HVO assumed control on 21 September).

*92    Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Second Report Submitted to the Commission of Experts (1993), IHRLI Doc. No. 28401-29019, at 28567.

*93    Id. at IHRLI Doc. No. 28679.

*94    Id. at IHRLI Doc. No. 28777-28788 and 28792.

*95    Serbian Republic Presidency, To Serbs All Over the World, IHRLI Doc. No. 48122-48127, at 48278.

*96    Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Second Report Submitted to the Commission of Experts (1993), IHRLI Doc. No. 28401-29019, at 28592.

*97    Id. at IHRLI Doc. No. 28465. See also Letter Dated 6 November 1992, From the Charge D'Affaires A.I. of the Permanent Mission of Yugoslavia to the U.N. Addressed to the Secretary General, U.N. Doc. S/24779, (9 November 1992), IHRLI Doc. No. 48265-48301, at 48279 (stating that several murders attributed to the HOS occurred in villages on 7 June 1992, and not in detention facilities).

*98    Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Second Report Submitted to the Commission of Experts (1993), IHRLI Doc. No. 28401-29019, at 28679. On 10 June, 1992, Mirsad Repak, Mile Vego and one other HOS member allegedly looted an apartment and sent the victim to Dretelj detention facility. Id.

*99    Id. at IHRLI Doc. No. 28602-28603 (listing burned villages in Herzegovina).

*100    Id. at IHRLI Doc. No. 28614-28619, 48296-48297, 48301.

*101    Terrence Sheridan, «Sarajevo's Song of the Wolves», The Plain Dealer, 9 February 1994, at 7B.

*102    Alfonso Rojo, «Sarajevo's Godfather Turns Crimebuster», The Guardian,3 June 1992, at 10-11.

*103    Patrick Bishop, The Daily Telegraph, 19 February 1994, at 38.

*104    Terrence Sheridan, «Sarajevo's Song of the Wolves», The Plain Dealer, 9 February 1994, at 7B.

*105    Letter from the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Serbian Republic to the Commission of Experts established pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780, 1 December 1992, IHRLI Doc. No. 11542.

*106    Patrick Bishop, The Daily Telegraph, 19 February 1994, at 38.

*107    «Crackdown on Bosnian Underworld», Agence France Presse, 9 November 1992.

*108    Roger Boyes, «Shadowy Irregulars Keep Alive City's Hopes», The Times, 28 August 1992.

*109    John Fullerton, «Sarajevo's `Robin Hood' in Military Power Struggle», Reuters Library Report, 21 September 1992.

*110    Patrick Bishop, The Daily Telegraph, 19 February 1994, at 38.

*111    «Bosnian Troops Said Poised to Break Sarajevo Siege», Agence France Presse, 1 December 1992.

*112    «Tanjug Reports Bosnian Army Issues Warrant for Arrest of Former Commander», BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 26 January 1993, at C1.

*113    «Bosnian Troops Said Poised to Break Sarajevo Siege», Agence France Presse, 1 December 1992.

*114    Patrick Bishop, The Daily Telegraph, 19 February 1994, at 38.

*115    For a more detailed discussion of Juka's paramilitary activities, see the Geographical Analysis section below.

*116    Terrence Sheridan, «Sarajevo's Song of the Wolves», The Plain Dealer, 9 February 1994, at 7B.

*117    Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Second Report Submitted to the Commission of Experts (2 July 1993), at Annex IV, «A New Genocide Against Serbs in Konjic Area», IHRLI Doc. No. 28653.

*118    Blaine Harden, «Juka's Wolves Prowl Sarajevo Streets for Serbs, Untended Merchandise», Washington Post, 18 September 1992, at A29.

*119    Letter from the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Serbian Republic to the Commission of Experts established pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780, 1 December 1992, IHRLI Doc. No. 11541 and 11550.

*120    Patrick Bishop, The Daily Telegraph, 19 February 1994, at 38.

*121    Andrew Hogg, «Robin Hood Hero Turns Enemy in Hell of Siege City», Sunday Times, 16 May 1993.

*122    Id.

*123    An official source, IHRLI Doc. No. 29760.

*124    Patrick Bishop, The Daily Telegraph, 19 February 1994, at 38.


NOTE:

The integral text of the report can be found at: http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/comexpert/ANX/III-A.htm#II.B.2

Again, we believe this report to be heavily anti-Serb biased.


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First posted: Last revised: October 16, 2003

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