Saturday morning comes. 5a.m. In ten minutes some
thirty of those highly destructive shells fall. We
run to cellars and shelters. But you cannot hide -
not even in cellars - you are afraid it will collapse
Then, suddenly it is dawn. They are shelling, shelling
there close to the factory but miss and destroy one
home near the hospital. Around 11a.m. someone from
[Serb] Territorial Defense comes and says that he was
sent from the head quarters, and that I should run
wherever I can.
"Why wherever? What? What is happening" I replied.
"Get out of Glina and go to Buzeta or Klasic [village]."
"No, I will not go anywhere. I will stay with our army."
"No, go - run wherever you know. Run."
"I don't know what will happen with the army. You
should leave! Run wherever you can. If they [new
Croat Nazis] catch you, they will skin you alive.
I tell my wife and my daughter-in-law, "Let us run."
What could I do? Everything I owned remained. We
had some houses, some [agricultural] machines...
well everything. You took nothing, nothing other
than this —- whatever clothes you had on. Run,
run out of Glina. Everyone left. In two hours no
one remained. Four columns formed on the highway.
Three quarters of Glina's inhabitants were Serbs and
the last quarter Croats. They were frontier men
with us. We intermarried. We had no hate for them.
How many times people wondered - "So you do not hate
Croats?" Why, there are good people among them, too
[I would answer]. We will not always talk about the
war. Damned are the wars.
Some old lady said (that was in 1991) she just could
not sleep. Why is that? She went to the post office
and saw couple of trucks stopped in front of the
Croatian church. They took out some yard-long chests
-- some six or seven chests. It all lasted some ten
minutes. They brought weapons to their church. But
no-one dared come to me and say, "Hey Ljuban, this
is what will come out of Croats," -- that they will
have this anti-Christian organization. Today they
have the same organization, but you will not hear
a peep about it from them [from common Croats]. Never.
World War two footage shows Ustashas at Zagreb's main
square giving an oath of loyalty to their fuhrer
("Poglavnik" = headman in Ustasha lingo) Dr. Ante
Pavelic. An Ustasha speaker narrates:
"I am giving my word of honor in front of the
all-Mighty God. I swear by everything that is dear
to me, that I will uphold the Ustasha principles,
and I will obey the rules and devotedly execute the
orders of Poglavnik [Croat Nazi fuhrer]. I will most
carefully keep any secret given to me, and I will
reveal it to no one."
Mr Jednak continues:
I cannot remember which year was the law suit against
[Archbishop] Stepinac [the Ustasha spiritual leader]...
He was there July 27  in Topusko, in Kordun
[at Ustasha oath ceremony]. Right next day they [the
Ustashas] started aresting people. What he said there
we do not know. Not one Serb was allowed to be present.
There was one [Croat] Tomo in my birth village of
Gornje Seliste. That time, the night before we tried
to run away, we talked to him. I said "Tomo, what is
happening?" "Oh, do not be afraid Jednak's. You are
one honest family. I will protect you. Do not be afraid."
When the next day came, they [Ustashas] spilled across
the [Serb] villages, but Tomo kept saying do not run
anywhere. I kept saying to my family, though: "Do not
trust Tomo. He was an emigrant with [Ustasha fuhrer]
Pavelic [in fascist Italy]."
So we run across some swamps, and they shoot at us.
Listen, you just hear [the bullet] whistling by. We
run as hard as we can and finally we pass Glina to
Grdjani [village] where I used to live. My wife says,
"They were asking for you and your father."
"Who was asking?"
"Ustahas did. They came twice."
"You know what," I said. "I do not know where to go or
what to do." We have no organization. We have nothing.
So I said, "Why don't you dig a pit there under the
manure? We will put boards above, and I will hide
there." She does it. I lie down but the manure stinks
so much I cannot endure it there. So, I say, "Why
don't you dig a pit under a hay stack?" She does.
I crawl in but I cannot stay there either. The night
is falling, so I say I will go to the pea garden.
I am hiding in the peas but I see it will not work.
The night is falling so I say I will go somewhere.
Where will I go? I'll go to Bovic [village].
I was only a half-mile from home when I stumble on
Ustashas coming on the same road. They stopped.
"Where are you going?" I say, "To Bovic." They say
"Sit on this carriage. We are going to Topusko."
They were actually in a pillage spree.
When we got half-way to Topusko, their horses got
tired so they stopped. They left the horses, and I
had to go with them. At the entrance of Topusko,
there is one large inn. Ustashas are singing inside.
They are breaking glasses.
I say to one Ustasha, Marko Tonkovic, I know him
so well before from the village of Vidosevac: "Let
us get one plum brandy." "Oh, no" he says, "we have
plum brandy for free as much as we want. We will not
drink here." So, we get to Topusko crossroads. There
a few Ustasha guards are waiting.
"what shall we do with him?" they [my captors] ask.
"Take him to the town house."
I think they will bring me to the church but
Topusko church is also filled with people. They
bring me to the town house.
There are a few of us in the town house and
one hour later they start to bring more people
from Kordun [Krajina]. They push thirty, forty
people in those small rooms. The Ustashas then say:
"Get out and form a queue." Okay. We do. Then
they say that one by one everyone should get back
to the town office. They severely beat everyone in
there and then bring them back to the queue.
As the night is approaching, lorries come. They
shove us, pack us in them. I ask Stanko Zuzic,
who had some lands close to ours, what was happening.
He just continues shoving us in. I ask Djuro Unkovic,
but he took the hat from my head and hit me over
the head twice with a whip. "I do not know anyone"
he says. But he was at our house so many times -- ate
Well the time came that you are not to know a Serb.
One, then two, three, four trucks come. They cram
us in. I think they will murder us in the large
forest that lies between Topusko and the Toplicka
railroad station. They do not. They bring us to the
railroad station and push us in the wagons. They are
cattle wagons. They push, push, push us into those
rail wagons —- some 150 or 160 of us into one. You
cannot even breathe. We are pressed like that until
the dawn. The dawn comes. Wagons are getting hooked
I say, "They are taking us to Glina." "No," [says
someone] "They are taking us to Lika [Krajina] to
do some forced work."
But, I knew that area well as I lived close to Glina.
We get to Glina. They stop the train. There is a
swarm of Ustasha — so many of them - like ants. They
are waiting for us. "Out, out, out! Two and two.
You are not allowed to look anywhere but straight
ahead. Every pair of us is accompanied by two Ustashas -
one standing on each side.
Some three people do not want to get out of the
wagons. They shoot them there and leave them in
They bring our large column to the [Serbian]
church. We are standing there afraid to look
anywhere aside. The two Ustashas that are guarding
you each has a knife on his rifle.
One Ustasha (Vidakovic Nikica) tells another (Dezalic)
to go to the Croat priest and get the key of the
church so that these "corpses" can be locked in.
He does it. How the Croatian priest had a key
to the Serbian church, I do not know.
They throw us in the church. "Get in, get in. Get in."
They push us in, as many of us as they can. They
lock the church and leave.
We wonder - what will happen? Some say we will be
brought to forced labor in Lika [Krajina]. The church
is filled with people. We think - we are finished!
Some people silently cry. Other people brought with
them two loaves of bread. Some brought fried chicken,
meat. There you are -- duped people! Around 9 o'clock
a few of Ustashas get in and ask: "Are you thirsty?"
One Ustasha is ordered to bring water. They bring two
buckets of water and leave them close to the entrance.
You cannot even drink that water you are so beaten up.
They came in two hours again. "Get up!" Someone can,
some cannot. They take people's names. This because
they are to be paid 100 dinars for every head they
slaughter. They want to have a record of how many
people they will slaughter.
They take first and last names, as many as they can
and they leave again.
In the afternoon they return and ask: "Who of
you is Pero Miljevic?"
"I am Pero Miljevic."
"Do you Pero know anything about Chetniks? We will
let you go home."
"I know some Ratkovic, an accountant, the one from
Glina who was killed. He was with Chetniks."
"Are you from that organization?"
"No, I am not."
The Ustashas cut some two yards of that heavy rope
used for the church bell and beat him badly with it
Later in the afternoon they return. They rip and
slice the church icons, beat people.
"Is any of you converted [to Catholicism]? We will
let you go."
No one answers. Then some Pajo, notary from Topusko,
and some Adam Korac answer, and they let them go.
They leave again.
Then some ten of them get back and ask whether
anyone has money. "We will buy you things. After
that you will be sent to Lika to forced labor. Do
not fear. Whoever wants to get out is free to
Whoever volunteered is hit by an Ustasha riffle
butt, in the spine - as hard as they can.
They get in with the night: "Light the candles!"
The candles cannot burn with so many people in
the church. You light it - it folds over and falls.
The Ustashas then start throwing the priest's candle
sticks and start hitting people with it. They hit
over the heads. You try to hide your head into other
people. The Ustashas curse our Serbian mothers and
step, just step, over people.
"Get up!" they shout. We are up. They bring more
(live) people with their trucks. Shove in, shove in.
Shove in as much as they can. No more can fit in.
You loose sense of time... It is night. Then: "Get
everything off!" We take shoes off and all we can...
It is calm again. Then again: "Who of you is Pero
"It's me." he says again.
"Tell us more of what you know about Chetniks.
We will let you go home."
"I do not know anything else."
As he said that he was hit right then by a knife. He
was as if cut in half.
was as if cut in half
Stojan Bajic, from Kordun says: "I know something
about Chetniks. Will you let me go?... We were
cutting telephone polls between Kameni Most and
"Are you listed as Chetnik?"
"Turn your neck."
He does. They cut his throat and say: "Sing!"
How could he sing? His blood is spraying two yards
away. That Ustasha then curses the victim's Serbian
mother and jumps to cut more of his neck. So it is.
He is cut more. Finished.
The rest of us are watching this. But something
inside of me tells me that I will stay alive.
Then, listen, when they slaughter those first two,
they start slaughtering, slaughtering, slaughtering
-- next and next and next -- and take them away.
The blood is flowing through the church.
Only around ten of us are left. I somehow jump into
the altar -- a few of us, and one lies there next to
the wall. He hides. I jump behind some small cupboard
and hide among the already slaughtered. So I was lying
down -- lying. Blood is flowing underneath my lips and
down all to the knees.
One Ustasha goes among the slaughtered and stabs
the already slaughtered with his knife. He gets to me.
He puts his foot on my back. Another Ustasha kicked
me in the head: "Fuck their Serbian mothers. They are
all slaughtered. Not one is alive."
Then they come closer to the hidden one.
"Ooooh, I am still alive."
"Get up!... How are you?"
"You see how I look."
"Get up... You two - hold him."
I lean my head a bit, and I see how they hold his
arms. A third Ustasha holds a candle and burns
the victim's mustache and eyes. He screams in pain.
What will I do? What can I do as they burn his eyes
One Ustasha yells: "Slaughter that corpse and throw
him among the slaughtered."
It got quiet again. Two and two Ustashas carry the
slaughtered bodies out. One takes your legs, the
other your arms. They throw you into the truck.
Listen, a few of us are left. It is the fifth or
sixth truck that leaves [the church]. My turn comes.
One Ustasha grabs me by the legs and one by the arms.
They carry me to throw me on the truck. And still
something is telling me that I'll stay alive.
They hurl me on the truck. Somehow I landed on my
back. Three or four other bodies fall on me. One of
the bodies has slashed throat, and blood flows over
me. I will not make a sound.
They order [the driver]: "Go. You know where you
should drive it."
The other [Ustasha] cautions: "Don't just go. Be
careful. Go back to church and check whether anyone
is alive. Then do not come back to Glina. No one
should ever know..."
The third one says: "Mother fucking Serbs - they will
not all fit. Throw some to that other truck."
They get me by the legs and drag me off. As they do
my head hits a rock. Here is where it was broken.
They throw me in the other truck.
The trucks start to move, the one I was on, too. Two
Ustashas are sitting above my head and one close to
The truck gets some 60, 70 yards off the main road.
They come for us. Throw, throw, throw bodies. There
are already large numbers of people in those pits.
There are some 30 or 40 of them doing it.
One they take off me and throw him then another and
third and fourth. They get me by the legs and threw
me somehow into one corner [of the pit]. My legs land
stretched. Another gets thrown over me. But still
something in me says that when they throw dirt over
us, I will lift that dirt and will run away.
They bring one live woman. What they didn't do to her
there --. One of them then says: "Fuck her Serbian
mother! Shoot her!" She falls. She falls down over
One says: "It would be good to get down there. She
has golden rings."
They then bring some live people. They hit them with
hammers and axes. They just bring him to the pit.
He cries: "Oh, my children." or "Oh, my dear mother."
They bring three or four trucks of live people
after mine. There must have been some 600 souls they
brought. Those are the people who did not fit in the
church and they left them in the town house.
Listen -- they murdered them all.
It was quiet again. You could not hear anything. One
then said: "You know, not all will fit in this pit.
We should step on them, pack them."
They get into the pit and step, step onto people.
Again, you cannot hear anything. You cannot hear anything.
Nothing. Then someone goes toward me and asks: "Are you
alive?" I am silent. I think it could be one of the
Ustashas. He crawls back and lies again. He comes back
and asks: "Are you alive? Are you alive?" I said:
"Yes I am. Let us get out."
I go to one corner, he to another.
There are other pits around, some two yards deep.
I am looking carefully. Some 30 or 40 of them [Ustashas]
are standing around, only five, six steps away. One
of them is holding a peasant type of lamp.
They did not notice that both he and I escaped.
From there, listen, we run, run. Run over the road.
I stumbled over someone in a corn field. He was lying
there. He was startled. People were running away from
their homes and were hiding in the fields of Majska
I say: "Hey, is that you Stojan?"
He says: "Yes, it's me, Ljuban, brother. What happened
to you? We heard that they were beating people in
Prekupa. What happened to you?"
"Well, I was in the church. You see what they did to
me. They were slaughtering people in the church."
"How did it happen?"
"Don't ask. Do not ask anything now. I cannot describe
it myself." I took the blood-soaked shirt off and
continued half-naked. I said: "Stojan, where is my
uncle Pavle Ovcar's house?"
"You already passed it" he says, directing me where
It was already dawn when I arrived. I changed. My pants
were all blood-soaked on me. Barely two hours passed -
someone said: "Ustashas are coming!"
Luckily they did not stop at the house. They were just
going through in a patrol.
I stayed there [in my uncle's house] the next three
months. I was curing my wounds. You see, my entire
back was scratched off as they dragged me across the
metal bottom of the truck.
I somehow survived.
We went among Croats and asked them to tell us. We
found three pits close to Novo Selo. None of the Croats
wanted to tell us about fourth pit. No one would ever
know about these three pits if I had not survived.
None of them would ever tell. Some people came [to
study it all] and those three pits are the ones that,
in 1947, we dug out. The pits were 10 or 12 yards
long and over 4 yards wide. Large pits. In one of
them we find a woman. She is in national costume of
Bovic, Kordun [Krajina]. A six year old girl was tied
with wire to her. Both mother and daughter had their
As they were taking them out, I told the person who
was taking notes, Ilija was his name, to keep the
sculls together so we know how many people were dug
out. But even that way you cannot know exactly. We
tried to collect shells of the sculls. I saw that
some 2,000 or more than 2,000 people were unearthed.
But those people collected at Glina - all their heads
were smashed. They were hitting them from the behind.
I do not trust them when they [today's Croat government]
are calling us back. He is calling you to kill you.
[Ustasha fuhrer] Pavelic did the same. They were
throwing leaflets. Whoever came was sent to concentration
camps. They were all murdered. They never came back.
The same now.
As you see, a human being endures anything. You always
think it will be better. You hope it will be better.
We have to be grateful that Serbia accepted so many
refugees... Thank God.
December 2003: AVI file (playable by Windows, video player),
Serbian language only. We plan to make (many) different
format versions subtitled in English.