It is impossible to understand what happened to Yugoslavia and the world in general without understanding the history and the motives behind American and British resque and protection of Hitler's Nazis at the end of World War Two.
America and Britain save WWII Nazis
"For much of the Catholic Church... W.W.II had been an interlude in a deeper and more important struggle against 'atheistic communism' that had been raging for decades"
|Christopher Simpson, "Blowback: America's Recruitment of Nazi's and its Effects on the Cold War", New York: Collier Books, 1988, page 177|
"Ante Pavelic turned back to face rising sun. Although the spring of 1945 was already some weeks old, the Slovene countryside was still cold and mist hung in the valleys and hollows. Despite the temperature, Pavelic wiped sweat from his brow. The fleeing dictator was now on foot, having abandoned his car on the clogged road and joined the trong of refugees marching wearily towards Austria.
Pavelic reflected on the irony of his situation. A few days before ha had been the Poglavnik of 'independent' Croatia, excercising comparable powers to the Fuhrer in Germany. He had even managed to keep the death machine operating almost until the end, while the Germans were frantically dismantling theirs. Then, without warning the Germans capitulated. The Poglavnik was now just one of hundreds of thousands fleeing towards Austria to surrender to the British...
Pavelic quivered, almost like a startled rabbit; he was sure he could see a motorised partisan unit in the distance. He turned again towards the Austrian frontier and broke into a desperate jog...
Pavelic hoped to be greeted in Austria by both Church and British leaders as a prominent Catholic leader in the struggle against 'atheistic Bolshevism'. After alll, British intelligence had maintained close pre-war relations with his underground terrorist network, even after the 1934 assassination of Yugoslav King Alexander in Marseilles. Pavelic also knew that the Holy See looked on Croatia as 'the frontier of Christianity'; a special relationship between Croatia and the Pope extended back to 700 AD.
Apart from this strong historical connection, Pavelic was also aware that Pius XII and his senior advisers held extremely charitable opinions of his militant Catholicism."
|Mark Aarons and John Loftus "Unholy Trinity," St. Martin's Press, Edition 1992, pp 70-71, Chapter 4, titled "A staggering blow to the Holy See"|
" [B]oth the USA and the Vatican... wished to help the flight of war criminals from Europe, each with its own objectives. Whereas the USA wanted to rescue them to carry out political operations against Soviet Russia and the oncoming Cold War, the Vatican, while thinking upon the same lines, had been motivated by an additional objective. Namely to help former political and religious supporters whom it had blessed during, the reign of terror under the Nazi imperium.
The basic motivation of such strange Vatican-USA fellowship... [was] derived by the necessity... to recruit, as energetically and as quickly as possible, trustworthy anti-Russian, anti-communist battalions ready to fight against Bolshevik Russia. And where could Vatican and the State Department find such ready, dedicated, anti-communst recruits, if not in the rank and file of... the fleeing war criminals now seeking asylum in the Americas and the USA? The fugitives... were now ready to... help the USA fight Soviet Russia, her former ally.
The recruitment of proven anti-communist individuals, from the fleeing war criminals, therefore became part and parcel of the USA-Vatican grand postwar strategy.
While Vatican City and its many extraterritorial buildings in Rome turned into the protective semi-official refuge for hundreds of war criminals, the USA's State Department became busy integrating many of them within its multi-varied branched subterranean machinery, operating outside official officialdom."
|Baron Avro Manhattan, "The Vatican's Holocaust," 1986, Ozark Books, pp 139-142|
"It is absurd to believe that 300,000 fugitive Nazis escaped to South America on the few U-Boats remaining at the end of the war, or that they all made their own travel arrangements...
The truth is much more ordinary, almost mundane. It is all the more shocking as a result. For whatever success ODESSA achieved, they were mere amateurs at Nazi-smuggling when compared with the Vatican. [Croat priest Krunoslav] Draganovic's Ratline was truly professional, ensuring that many guilty war criminals reached safe havens. Often they did not end up in the remote jungles of South America, but settled instead in Britain, Canada, Australia and the United States.
Most of the mass murderers were in fact not even German. At the end of World War II, there were tens of thousands of Central and East European Nazi collaborators who were just as guilty as their German sponsors... These were the people of most concern to Father Krunoslav Draganovic, Secretary of the Croatian Institute of San Girolamo in Rome. Draganovic was known for his deep sympathy for the Croatian Ustashi, even those who had committed war crimes. Many innocent Croatians had been cynically returned by the British to certain death at the hands of Tito's Communist government in May 1945. But many horrendously guilty war criminals escaped... The Ustashi were the first to be protected by Draganovic... Draganovic was in Rome since August 1943, negotiating for Pavelic... Pavelic's plan for smuggling network were already well advanced.
Draganovic was the key man in setting up this Ratline. He established contacts with [Pope] Pius XII, as well as senior officials of the Vatican Secretariat of State and Italian intelligence... In late 1944 the Vatican requested that he be permitted to visit the camps where his fellow countrymen were housed. Although Draganovic was well known to Western diplomats as a fanatic Ustashi, Allied intelligence gave him carte blance."
|Mark Aarons and John Loftus "Unholy Trinity," St. Martin's Press, Edition 1992, pp 88-89, Chapter 5, titled "Ratline"|
"According to secret reports from the U.S. Army's Counterintelligence Corps (CIC), written just after World War II and since declassified, Draganovic and his collaborators at San Girolamo provided money, food, housing, and forged Red Cross passports for a number of Ustasha war criminals seeking to escape justice. Through an underground railroad of sympathetic priests, known as the "ratline," the Ustashas could move from Trieste, to Rome, to Genoa, and on to neutral countries--primarily Argentina--where they could live out their days unpunished and unnoticed. Along the ratline, virtually the entire Ustasha leadership went free. "All these people were escaping--and this at a time when just getting a meal in Rome was a major accomplishment," recalls William Gowen, a CIC officer in Rome after the war...
Croatian Catholic officials were funneling money to war criminals even after they escaped to Argentina, documents show. According to cable intercepts cited in a 1947 U.S. diplomatic report, Pavelic escaped in November 1947 to Buenos Aires, where he was said to have been met by a retinue of Catholic priests."
|Susan Headden, Dana Hawkins, and Jason Vest "A vow of silence - Did gold stolen by Croatian fascists reach the Vatican?" US News and World Report, March 30, 1998|
"A leading Nazi-hunter yesterday attacked plans by the Pope to make an historic 'apology to the Jews' shortly as a 'cosmetic exercise' which would leave the 'true facts' about help given to Nazi criminals by the Roman Catholic Church hidden in the Vatican archives.
Jewish groups have long maintained that Vatican officials help former Nazi officers to flee to Latin America and that Catholic monasteries and convents gave them refuge...
It has also been claimed that gold taken from Jews by the Fascist wartime regime in Croatia, a Catholic country, was transferred to the Vatican for safe-keeping, although the Vatican has denied this.
'I have personally seen documents in the Buenos Aires archives showing that Ante Pavelic, the Croat Fascist leader, arrived in Argentina dressed as a priest and carrying a certificate of safe conduct from the Vatican,' Mr Samuels said.
Shimon Samuels is the head of international relations at the Simon Wiesenthal Centre -- which has brought numerous former Nazi criminals to book...
He was appalled to learn that the Vatican was considering the beatification of Pius XII. This would be 'a morally inadmissible act. Pius XII sold the soul of the Church to the Nazi Devil."
|Richard Owen, "Pope's apology to Jews attacked as empty gesture," The Times (London) Oct 30, 1997|
"The Vatican held for safekeeping about 200 million Swiss francs plundered from Serbs and Jews by the Nazi puppet government of Croatia after World War II, according to a newly declassified U.S. document.
The document, uncovered by researchers for an A&E Television documentary, is an internal Treasury Department memo kept secret for 50 years, along with other documents related to the handling of Nazi wealth after the war.
[T]he document... contained declassification markings dated Dec. 31, 1996.
The latest discovery is the first credible evidence of Vatican involvement in the Nazi gold controversy.
No immediate response to the discovery was available from the Vatican. Calls to the embassy in Washington Monday were not answered.
'Approximately 200 million Swiss francs was originally held in the Vatican for safe-keeping,' says a declassified Oct. 21, 1946, memo from Treasury agent Emerson Bigelow to his superior. Other documents establish that Bigelow received reliable information from the American Overseas Special Services, precursor of the CIA, on Nazi wealth held in specific Swiss bank accounts.
If the 200 million Swiss francs from Croatia were still held today, it would be valued at about $170 million, plus hundreds of millions more in accumulated interest.."
|The Associated Press, "U.S. Memo: Vatican Held WWII Loot," July 21, 1997|
"Madrid. Ante Pavelic, 70, Quisling president of Croatia during World War II and one of the leading war criminals still at large, died in the German hospital here.
The hospital refused to give information about the death or its cause but referred callers to Dr. Rudolf Sajitz, who attended Pavelic. The doctor's office said he was away on vacation.
Pavelic was wanted by Yugoslavia for trial on charges that he was responsible for the killing of 700,000 Serbs and Jews during his 3.5 years as the axis viceroy. He fled Yugoslavia in May 1945, and turned up in Argentina later in the year for asylum under ex-dictator Juan Peron.
He was wounder in an assassination attempt in April 1957, which he blamed on Yugoslavian agents. A short time later Argentina agreed to consider a Yugoslav extradition request and Pavelich fled again.
Earlier this month, he was reported working with Paraguayan secret police in interrogating captured Paraguayan invaders. But apparently he made his way to Spain."
|Chicago Daily News, "Nazi Pupet Ruler of Croatia Dies," Tuesday, December 29, 1959|
"With the death of Hitler and Mussolini the dogmas of extermination also disappeared among the German and Italian peoples... The Croatian racists were, of course, an exception, just as they always had been throughout their racial and religious policy. Either the rest of the world didn't know about their crimes or else it had forgotten them. A good number of the guilty are enjoying complete freedom in the Western world" , publishing their newspapers, their reviews and memorandums and their books which are filled with nazi poison and racist harangues.
The Archbishop Ivan Saric and Andrija Artukovic (now in Los Angeles), with 500 priests, monks, and thousands of nazi-Ustashi continue to spread their venom of racial and religious hatred. The audacity and arrogance of these racists is such that they are not even aware of the limitations of the law of the democratic countries upon whose liberality they have imposed.
Now tat their racist masters [Hitler and Mussolini] have been for ever silenced, a large number of Ustasi, with their priests and monks, are trying to persuade the free world that the Ustashi were not inspired by racism, but by democracy. At a time when the Germans are showing the German youth traces of the frightful crimes that took place in Hitler's concentration camps, a Croatian high priest is uttering threats of the future extermination of the Serbs. The threats of this Croatian prelate are expressed in a language which even Al Capone would have hardly dared to use.
Champions of this [Ustasha] sinister human history have never denied the past, while in their press and other publications they report that they are ready to pursue any 'unfinished business' at the first accasion.
|Professor Edmond Paris, 'Genocide in Satellite Croatia, 1941- 1945,' Chicago, 1961, The American Institute for Balkan Affairs, pp. 261-263|
"In Croatia, dangerous signals are appearing on the political landscape Croatian President Franjo Tudjman and his conservative, nationalist party recently won majority in the Croatian Parliament. Tudjman, one of the authors of the "Jasenovac Myth", reduces the number of Jewish victims of the Holocaust from six million to one million, and states that historical data about Jasenovac is "inflated". He further wrote of alledged "PARTICIPATION OF JEWS IN THE LIQUIDATION OF GYPSIES IN JASENOVAC," AND ACCUSED JEWS OF HAVING TAKEN "THE INICIATIVE IN PREPARING AND PROVOKING NOT ONLY INDIVIDUAL ATROCITIES BUT ALSO MASS SLAUGHTER OF NON-JEWS, Communists, Partisans and Serbs." ...
... Meanwhile, the new Croatian Democratic Union (CDU) government has taken steps to form a special police force made up of "PURE CROATS WITHOUT MIXTURE OF OTHER BLOOD"... "
|"RESPONSE", The Wiesenthal Center's World Report, Avgust 1990, Vol 11 No 3, Page 9. Printed under title: "Embracing the Brutalities of the Past"|
The text refers to the time just after first post-Communist elections in Croatia when Croat nationalist and holocaust denier, Dr. Tudjman won the elections.
"In Croatia the ex-partisan general Franjo Tudjman was elected president. He had fallen out with Tito and served two prison sentences on charges of nationalism. By the time I first met him in 1980, he was already PATHOLOGICALLY ANTI-SERB. He has allowed himself to be SURROUNDED BY USTASHA simpathisers, many of them returning from Canada and Australia.
Tudjman armed his followers, and though they were unable to break into the all-Serb regions, which were ferociously defended, in areas of Croat majority they made life for Serbs impossible. With jobs denied and homes burnt down, TENS OF THOUSANDS FLED LONG BEFORE THE FEDERAL ARMY AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY INTERVENED...
...Zagreb simply turned its back on the past. TODAY AGAIN, THE USTASHA FLAG HAS BEEN RAISED (!!!!!!).....
...The internal borders which we treat as permanent fiture of Yugoslavia were in reality drawn up secretly by Tito's men in 1943 and were designed as ADMINISTRATIVE boundaries..."
|Guardian Weekly, London, December 1, 1991, Excerpts from an article written by Professor Nora Beloff. Printed under title: "Hope and history in Yugoslavia".|
"...Jewish leaders were UNANIMOUS in saying they saw worring PARALLELS BETWEEN THE NAZI AND PRO-NAZI MASSACRES OF 50 YEARS AGO and the unease of Jews in Croatia under strongly nationalist regime in the break away republic TODAY.
A Jewish community centre and cemetery were damaged by explosives two months ago in the Croatian capital, Zagreb, and local Jews there have been subjected to death threats and other intimidation...
...'What worries us is that those in power in Croatia NOW are largely THE SAME AS DURING THE NAZI ERA,' said Dr. Klara Mandic, a senior Jewish community leader...
"In some cases THEY ARE EXACTLY THE SAME PEOPLE, now in their seventies and BACK from exile under the Communists. In other cases, they are the CHILDREN OF THE USTASHA".
"THEY WEAR THE SAME BLACK SHIRTS, the same black trousers, many carry THE SAME "SERBO-SEKS" (KNIVES FOR SERBS). Tudjman... has prepaired an athmosphere similar to that at the start of the Second World War...""
|(British) "The Independent", October 21, 1991, foreign news, page 10, Phil Davidson. Title: "War raises old anxieties for Croatian Jews".|
"...Ultra-nationalist Croatian party of Rights... on the wooden stocks of their authomatic weapons, some fighters in the militia have carved the U symbol of Croatia's notorious Ustashi government that, in 1941-45, collaborated with Adolf Hitler and converted Eastern Orthodox Serbs to Catholicism. Hundred of thousand Serbs not converted were expelled from the fascist state of murdered in death camps...
...As the war intensified, the initials of the wartime Ustashi regime were scrawled on more and more buildings across Zagreb.
At a posh hotel wedding reception here an Saturday night,... two young men stood at the large table and raised stiff right arms in the "Sieg Heil!" salute of Nazi Germany... "
|The Washington Post, October 10, 1991, Page A31, Article by Blaine Harden: "Croat Field Militant Militia - Nationalist Party Fighters invoke images of Fascist Past"|
"The Croatian government has revived many of the paraphenalia of the Nazi puppet regime headed by Ante Pavelic in the early 1940s. STREETS AND SQUARES HAVE BEEN RENAMED AFTER USTASHA HEROES...
...Plans are well under way to REINSTATE the kuna, THE CURRENCY OF THE FASCIST STATE. THE CROATIAN FLAG ONCE AGAIN SPORTS SAHOVNICA, THE RED AND WHITE CHEQUERED SHIELD (!!!) WHICH SYMBOLIZED PAVELIC'S STATE - symbol which some... equate with a reunited Germany flying the swastika...
...the government suggests reburying Ustasha dead in the same plot as the Jewish victims of Croat-run concentration camps...
...The country lives under a heavy police influence, overt and secret...
...Editors who display independence of thought find themselves periodically summnoned to police offices for "guidance"...
...It is less easy to explain that lack of international reaction to the RESURGENT FASCISM SO EVIDENT in the building of the new nation. British suggestions of economic sanctions on account of Croatia's military involvement in Bosnia have been repeatedly blocked by Germany... Germany is siding with Croatia... former partners in tourism and GENOCIDE. On the American side, THERE ARE NONE SO BLIND AS THOSE WHO WILL NOT SEE. SWASTIKAS, BLACK UNIFORMS, RAPE AND PILLAGE fade into insignificanse beside the demonic image the State Department has built for the Serbs. "
|(British) THE SPECTATOR, March 19 1994, pages 16, 17, 18. Excerpts from an article by Kenneth Roberts "UNRECONSTRUCTED NAZISM ON DISPLAY - The Germans warmly support the Croats. Kenneth Roberts says this reuniting of Second World War allies is distasteful"|
"Zagreb, Croatia. The government of Croatia has forced thousands of its enemies from their homes and from the country, according to the new Zagreb office of the human rights organization of Helsinki Watch.
The actions have been directed mostly against Serbs, who once constituted a sizable minority in Croatia, but also against CROATS opposed to the rule of President Franjo Tudjman, said Ivan Zvonimir Cicak, who heads Helsinki watch of Croatia.
"SINCE 1991, THE CROATIAN AUTHORITIES HAVE BLOWN UP OR RAZED 10,000 (TEN THOUSAND!) HOUSES, MOSTLY OF SERBS, BUT ALSO HOUSES OF CROATS," Mr. Cicak, who is cataloguing the abuses, said in an interview. "IN SOME CASES THEY DINAMITED HOMES WITH THE FAMILIES INSIDE. WHOLE FAMILIES WERE KILLED. Many were vounded."
...Mr. Cicak said one of the Croats who lost his home was Ante Semjar, "a writer who is a member of the PEN club." He added: "He had a big house on the island of Pag. They blew it up because he had criticized the regime."
In September a building in the coastal city of Split where Croatian dissidents planned to publish an independent newspaper called Dalmatinske Novine (Dalmatian Newspaper) was destroyed "with 100 kilograms (200+ pounds) of dynamite," Mr. Cicak said.
He said the Tudjman Government, in a statement by Foreign Minister mate Granic in May, had acknowledged the destruction of "7,000 houses" of Croatian Serbs. So far, the justice authorities have investigated about 100 (hundred) cases of dynamiting, "but there have been no prosecutions," he said.
ALTOGETHER ABOUT 280,000 (TWO HUNDRED AND EIGHTY THOUSAND) CROATIAN SERBS HAVE FLED THE COUNTRY as the result of the dynamite campaign and other measures... "
|"CROATIA IS SAID TO OUST MANY" by David Binder, New York Times, Wednesday, December 8, 1993|
Notice that this article describes situation in Croatia BEFORE August 1995. During operation "storm" the new Croat Storm troopers, trained and equipped by USA expelled ALL Krajina Serbs. The Serbs lived in Krajina, as majority population 1578. These people managed to survive Ustashas and Hitler's New World Order - but did not survive the American one!
"And there can be no return to the past, to the times when they the Serbs were spreading cancer in the heart of Croatia, cancer which was destroying the Croatian national being and which did not allow the Croatian people to be the master in its own house and did not allow Croatia to lead an independent and sovereign life under this wide, blue sky and within the world community of sovereign nations...They [Serbian refugees driven from their homes by the Croatian Army] didn't even have the time to take with them their filthy foreign currency or their knickers."
|Croatian Radio, transcribed by BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, August 28, 1995|
That quote was from Franjo Tudjman, President of the Independent State of Croatia of 1990's. This state was modeled on its Nazi predecessor. It was created when Croatia violently seceded from Yugoslavia in June, 1991, as a direct result of the German-U.S. strategy of using terrorist forces to break up Yugoslavia. Tudjman was speaking during a train tour of what had been Serbian Krajina, near Croatia in August, 1995. Trained by U.S. forces, armed by Germany, with U.S. fighter-bombers flying air support, the Croatian Army had just driven some 250,000 Serbs from their ancestral homes.
Serbian farmers owned the land and lived in the Krajina for over 400 years, but the 'New York Times' called these Serbs "rebels," thus lending legitimacy to this nightmare. The 'New York Times' caption under pictures of Serbian refugees being stoned as they fled the neo-Ustashi offensive read: "Thousands of Serbs have been displaced in the Croatian offensive that recaptured three-quarters of a territory seized by Serbian forces in 1991." ('The New York Times,' August 10, 1995)
"In World War II, Hitler had no executioners more willing, no ally more passionate, than the Fascists of Croatia.
They are returning, 50 years later, from what should have been their eternal grave, the defeat of Nazi Germany.
The Western allies who dug that grave with the bodies of their servicemen have the power to stop them, but do not.
Croatian Fascists, known as the Ustashe, fought alongside German troops against Serbs, Muslims and Croats trying desperately, and vainly, to block the Nazi conquest of Yugoslavia. In 1941 Hitler rewarded Croatian Fascists by carving out a Croatian state and letting them run it. They did not let him down.
The Ustashe slaughtered Serbs, Jews and non-Fascist Croats -- and with such glee and such cruelty that their name became a terror and stench throughout Europe.
Croatia disappeared with Hitler's annihilation in 1945. A half-century later the West created a new Croatia, by recognizing the secession from Yugoslavia of Croatian nationalists, led by one Franjo Tudjman.
Not all were Fascists, by any means, but now the Ustashe is running in elections, brutalizing its enemies -- Croat, Serb or Jew. Mr. Tudjman is giving them what they need most -- presence, and the rewriting of history.
Two documents are a short course on the Ustashe. To honor the murdered and protect the future, read them.
From pages 323-328 of the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust (Macmillan): "More than a half million Serbs were killed, a quarter million expelled, 200,000 forced to convert to the Catholicism of the Croatian Fascists.
"Thousands were hurled from mountain tops, others were beaten to death, entire villages were burned down, women raped, people sent on death marches in the middle of winter, still others starved to death."
Jews? Ante Pavelic, the Ustashe leader, announced that the Jews would be "liquidated within a very short time." They were, most of the 40,000.
But some chosen as victims did survive. Study the picture of the children after the camps were freed. They wear only bones and tightened skin. Serbs? Jews?
The second document is a fine piece of journalism from Croatia by the New York Times correspondent Chris Hedges (April 12) about the rebirth of Fascism there -- the bullying, the sieg-ing and heil-ing in Croatian, the whole nastiness.
Most important is the increasing work of Mr. Tudjman -- a longtime Holocaust denier -- to recast the Fascists as patriots and founders of the new Croatia.
This man likes to talk about how he himself fought German soldiers. Now a major political, military and financial beneficiary of the West, he permits pictures of Fascists dead and alive to be plastered around the country. He gives special status and pensions to Ustashe veterans.
He tried to get the body of the killer-chief Pavelic returned from Spain, where he had fled, and buried with honor in Zagreb -- like reburying Himmler under the linden.
The family objected. So he brought back another Ustashe killer, this one alive, and made him a member of Parliament.
Western recognition of Mr. Tudjman's Croatia was pushed hardest by Germany despite warnings from Bosnian Muslims that the timing could set off war among themselves, Serbs and Croats.
Franjo Tudjman is now ours. The West cannot evade responsibility for the rebirth of Fascism in Croatia. Peter Galbraith, U.S. Ambassador to Croatia, told me he had denounced Croatian ethnic cleansing of Serbs last year, and considered the glorification of the Ustashe an insult to Croats who fought Nazis, and to American veterans of World War II.
Mr. Tudjman and his Fascist protégés brush off ambassadorial protest with insult. Would he brush off the Presidents of the U.S. and France, the British Prime Minister -- or the Chancellor of Germany -- if they took action to stop Croatian Fascism? Such as denouncing the Tudjman buildup of the Ustashe, then reducing Western representation to sub-ambassadorial and slashing economic help to Croatia -- the whole list?
That won't change the Ustashe or improve Mr. Tudjman's sickness of body and character. But it could force him to end Fascist rehabilitation work.
Or has the West become so sick itself that it will permit Croatian Fascism to live on beyond the grave?"
|By A.M. Rosenthal, The New York Times, OP-ED, April 15, 1997 (Presented in its entirety - for 'fair use' only)|
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Last revised: February 29, 2004